Chromosome contains the DNA of every living organism

Chromosome is probably one of the most vital components inside the body of every living organism for it contains all the vital instructions used in the functioning and development of every living organism. But how’s this possible? It’s all because chromosome is made up of structured Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and proteins. All the instructions are stored inside the DNA which composed majority of the chromosome structure. To be more precise, chromosome is a single piece of DNA coiled to form a thread-like structure. DNA comprises of countless number of genes that carry the hereditary traits coming from parents to offspring. The word chromosome comes from the two Greek words chroma meaning “color” and soma meaning “body” – referring to the chromosome’s property to of being strongly tarnished by specific dyes. Chromosomes are found inside the nucleus of a cell.

Components of Chromosome

Chromosome is not made up of DNA and protein alone. Chromosome is made up of a substance called chromatin. Chromatin is made up of a combination of DNA, histone, nucleic acids and other proteins forming the components of chromosomes. Chromatin is only present in the nuclei of the eukaryotic cells. The main function of chromatin is to package the DNA to a much smaller volume enough to fit in the cell, at the same time strengthening it allowing processes such as meiosis and mitosis to happen. In some instances, cell may composed of more than one chromosome such as the mitochondria and chloroplasts found in plants. In addition, the overall structure of chromosome and the chromatin varies over the course of cell cycle.

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